Lessons Learned


  • OSHA Best Practices for Hospital-Based First Receivers of Victims, January 2005
  • Dark Winter - A Bioterrorism Exercise, June 22-23, 2001
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Center for Biosecurity
    The Dark Winter exercise portrayed a fictional scenario depicting a covert smallpox attack on US citizens. Former senior government officials played the roles of National Security Council members responding to the evolving epidemic; representatives from the media were among the observers of these mock NSC meetings and played journalists during the scenario's press conferences. The exercise was held at Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, DC.  Site includes lesson learned from the exercise, plus background information, participant list, exercise script, briefing, and slide presentation.
  • Lessons Learned from a Full-Scale Bioterrorism Exercise, November-December 2000
    By Richard E. Hoffman and Jane E. Norton, Emerging Infections Diseases J Vol. 6 No. 6
    During May 20-23, 2000, local, state, and federal officials, and the staff of three hospitals in metropolitan Denver, participated in a bioterrorism exercise called Operation Topoff. As a simulated bioterrorist attack unfolded, participants learned that a Yersinia pestis aerosol had been covertly released 3 days earlier at the city's center for the performing arts, leading to more than 2,000 cases of pneumonic plague, many deaths, and hundreds of secondary cases. The exercise provided an opportunity to practice working with an infectious agent and to address issues related to antimicrobial prophylaxis and infection control that would also be applicable to smallpox or pandemic influenza.

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