Neonatal abstinence syndrome increased 300% between 1999 and 2013, from 1.5 cases per 1,000 hospital births to 6 per 1,000, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increases in NAS, a condition that occurs primarily among newborns exposed to opioids during pregnancy, occurred in 25 of 27 states with at least three years of data in the federal Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, with the annual change in incidence per 1,000 births ranging from 0.05 in Hawaii to 3.6 in Vermont. “These findings underscore the importance of state-based public health programs to prevent unnecessary opioid use and to treat substance use disorders during pregnancy, as well as decrease the incidence of NAS,” the authors said.