Mobilizing a rapid and robust clinical research program to explore whether investigational therapeutics and vaccines are safe and effective to combat the next epidemic will depend on strengthening capacity in low-income countries for response and research, engaging people living in affected communities, and conducting safety trials before an epidemic hits, according to a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Using key lessons learned from the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the report offers recommendations to improve the speed and effectiveness of clinical trial research while an epidemic is occurring, especially in settings with limited health care and research infrastructure. The study was sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, National Institutes of Health, and Food and Drug Administration.